More than 6 million years ago, distinctly human beings arose in Africa, although recent research suggests that modern humans are just around 100,000 years old.
It is not possible to trace early human evolution to anywhere else than African, where human beings with cultural and technical expertise respond rapidly to diverse conditions facilitating Homo Sapiens to communicate and engage with populations within the early species.
Humans first evolved in Africa, and much of human evolution occurred on that continent. The fossils of early humans who lived between 6 and 2 million years ago come entirely from Africa.
In Ethiopia and Kenya, fossils found now date human origins back at least 5 to 6 million years.
Early human fossils and archeological evidence remain to offer the most important clues about this ancient past. These remains include bones, tools, and any other evidence (such as footprints, evidence of hearths, or butchery marks on animal bones) left by earlier people.
Usually, the remains were buried and preserved naturally. They are then found either on the surface (exposed by rain, rivers, and wind erosion) or by digging in the ground.
Human evolution is the lengthy process of change by which people originated from apelike ancestors. Scientific evidence shows that the physical and behavioral traits shared by all people originated from apelike ancestors and evolved over a period of approximately six million years.
One of the earliest defining human traits, bipedalism, the ability to walk on two legs evolved over 4 million years ago. Other important human characteristics such as a large and complex brain, the ability to make and use tools, and the capacity for language developed more recently.
Many advanced traits including complex symbolic expression, art, and elaborate cultural diversity emerged mainly during the past 100,000 years.
Early humans first migrated out of Africa into Asia probably between 2 million and 1.8 million years ago. They entered Europe somewhat later, between 1.5 million and 1 million years.
Species of modern humans populated many parts of the world much later. For instance, people first came to Australia probably within the past 60,000 years and to the Americas within the past 30,000 years or so. The beginnings of agriculture and the rise of the first civilizations occurred within the past 12,000 years.
Although, there has always been an argument on the part of the continent as distinguish by the present geographical maps with which humans evolve. It is important to emphasize that spatial division and boundary differentiation as seen today never occurred in early human development.
Africa, although not its original name, remains one parallel base. And its geographical division only emerge from the intrusion of colonialism.
It is also noted that war, conquest, genocide, and slavery have been rife in the last 10,000 years of human history, so called “historical time,” the era of time.
Historic time is only a tenth of the time modern humans have roamed the earth, and is only an evolutionary instant compared to the 6 million years during which the human species evolved from our common ancestry with apes and chimpanzees.
Fossilized bone, size, shape, and markings left by muscles revealed how early moved around, held tools, and how the size of their brains changed over a long time.
Humanity have evolved through a serious series stages of transformation till its present state. The process of evolution involves a series of natural changes that cause species (populations of different organisms) to arise, adapt to the environment, and become extinct.
“The primitive-communal social formations in Africa began from a gradual evolution in the development of collapsible architecture that used sticks, shrubs, and wood”. Professor Sule Kano, Department of Political Science, Bayero University, Kano wrote in (The Palgrave Handbook of African Political Economy, 2020:83).
“Much later, these groups produced clothing, domestic items, and pottery”. He added.